ICT personel and Information Comunication Technology Hierachy


There are 6 components to an ICT system
  • Data.  They are facts to figures which convey no particular meaning to a given activity information
  • Hardware.  they are the physical components of a computer system
  • Software:. A computer software are the details instructions that control the operation of a computer system
  • Information It processed data which is meaningful and is used in decision making
  • Procedures: they are instruction to be carried during the use of the computer systems
  • People they are  users who  interact with and control computer systems
 Role of ICT in Business Environment

Tangible benefits 

they can be quantified. These include:
1)     Increased productivity.
2)     Lower operational costs.
3)     Reduced workforce.
4)     Lower computer expenses.
5)     Lower outside vendor costs.
6)     Lower clerical and professional costs.
7)     Reduced rate of growth in expenses.
8)     Reduced facility costs.

Intangible benefits 

they are difficult to quantify. These include:
9)     Improved asset utilization.
10)  Improved resource control.
11)  Improved organizational planning.
12)  Improved organizational flexibility.
13)  More timely information.
14)  Increased organizational learning.
15)  Legal requirements attained.
16)  Enhances employee goodwill.
17)  Increased job satisfaction.
18)  Improved decision making.
19)  Improved operations.
20)  Higher client satisfaction.
21)  Better corporate image.
22)  More information.

 Information Centers

An information center is designed to support end users in a number of ways. The typical  services offered by an information center include:
1.  Problem resolution
The center acts as help desk for different users who may seek information ranging  from simple queries on some of the error messages encountered to appeals for help  when systems malfunction. There will always be expert assistance to sort out the problems.
2.  Training of users
This entails enhancing computer literacy among various system users. Personnel  from the information center may be handy in introducing users to new programs  and also offering specialized skills to other departments during implementation of new programs.
3.  Consultation
The role of a consultant in the information center is to help end-users plan for  effective use of their computing resources, to advise them in ways to computerize  their work, and evaluate proposed computer applications, to assist in product  selection and address questions regarding software and hardware.
4.  Technical support
This is provided by the center when user problems are too large or complex to be  solved without the aid of technical specialists. Staff may also be asked to audit systems performance,  establish back-up and recovery procedures, plan data access, assist with design of security, plan projects or document user requirements. This is an extension of the consultation services.
5.  Product support
Software packages may reside at the information center to provide end-users with  the services such as graphics, spreadsheets, decision support, modelling capabilities,  financial analysis, database management. Staff may demonstrate how the software is  used and sometimes provide a sample problem solution walk through.
6.  Hardware access
The center controls the terminals, computers, printers and other equipment. The  center, in some organizations, acts as an in-house computer store. End users can try  out the equipment, receive advice about the relative merits of various models from  various manufacturers. The center may provide training, configuration assistance  and maintenance of the resources acquired from the center.
7.  Staffing
Some information centers provide back up assistance for end users who have a  temporary need for information processing personnel.
8.  Computer resource planning and justification
The center can help end-users analyses their workloads, make projections of future  needs and prepare (and justify) request for additional funding for computer  resources.  The center nurtures end user awareness of the importance of  standardization and integration of resources.
9.  New service evaluation
The center staff assesses the user needs and when new products (hardware and  software) come on the market, they help in evaluation as per the user needs and  identify those that will be useful to enhance end user self -sufficiency and  productivity. If necessary, the center may then initiate a proposal to management for  the acquisition of the product.
10.  Administrative services
These services include promotion of the information center activities, introduction  of new users to the information center, new product announcement, accounting and  billing for center use,